fbpx
Defined Benefit Plan 奥斯丁的资产

如果你像许多美国人一样,你可能有雇主赞助的退休计划.  This is the third article in a three-part series about the basics of 401k, 403b, and Defined Benefit Plans.

你可能依靠固定收益计划的资金来帮助你获得舒适的生活 退休. Often referred to as traditional pension plans, defined benefit plans promise to pay you a specified amount at 退休.

来帮助你理解固定收益计划在你的退休储蓄策略中可能扮演的角色, here’s a look at some basic plan attributes. 但由于每 雇主的计划 有点不同, you’ll need to read the summary plan description, 或社会民主党, provided by your company to find out the details of your own plan.

What are defined benefit plans?

Defined benefit plans are qualified employer-sponsored 退休 plans. Like other qualified plans, they offer tax incentives both to employers and to participating employees. For example, your employer can generally deduct contributions made to the plan. 而且,在你开始从该计划中获得分配(通常是在退休期间)之前,你通常不会对这些贡献缴纳税款。. 然而, these tax incentives come with strings attached–all qualified plans, including defined benefit plans, 是否必须遵守1974年雇员退休收入保障法(ERISA)和国内税收法典(Internal Revenue Code)下的一套复杂的规则.

How do defined benefit plans work?

A defined benefit plan guarantees you a certain benefit when you retire. How much you receive generally depends on factors such as your salary, 年龄, and years of service with the company.

每年, 养老金精算师会计算从该计划中预计支付的未来福利,并最终确定金额, 如果有任何, needs to be contributed to the plan to fund that projected benefit payout. Employers are normally the only contributors to the plan. 但固定收益计划可能要求员工为该计划缴款,尽管这种情况并不常见.

你可能要工作一定的年限,才能永久享有退休福利. This is generally referred to as “vesting.” If you leave your job before you fully vest in an employer’s defined benefit plan, you won’t get full 退休 benefits from the plan.

How are 退休 benefits calculated?

Retirement benefits under a defined benefit plan are based on a formula. 这个公式可以为你每年为雇主工作提供一个固定的金额, or it can provide for a specified percent年龄 of earnings. 许多计划通过计算雇员在过去几年的平均收入来计算雇员的退休福利, 另外, averaging an employee’s earnings for his or her entire career), taking a specified percent年龄 of the aver年龄, and then multiplying it by the employee’s number of years of service.

注意:许多固定收益养老金计划公式也会按你期望获得的社会保障福利金额的一定比例减少养老金福利.

How will 退休 benefits be paid?

许多固定福利计划允许你选择你希望你的福利如何支付. Payment options commonly offered include:

  • A single life annuity: You receive a fixed monthly benefit until you die; after you die, no further payments are made to your survivors.
  • A qualified joint and survivor annuity: You receive a fixed monthly benefit until you die; after you die, 你未亡的配偶将继续获得福利(至少相当于你福利的50%),直到他或她去世.
  • A lump-sum payment: You receive the entire value of your plan in a lump sum; no further payments will be made to you or your survivors.

选择正确的支付方式很重要,因为你所选择的方式会影响你最终获得的利益. You’ll want to consider all of your options carefully, and compare the benefit payment amounts under each option. Because so much may hinge on this decision, you may want to discuss your options with a financial advisor.

What are some advant年龄s offered by defined benefit plans?

  • Defined benefit plans can be a major source of 退休 income. They’re generally designed to replace a certain percent年龄 (e.g., 70 percent) of your pre退休 income when combined with Social Security.
  • Benefits do not hinge on the performance of underlying investments, so you know ahead of time how much you can expect to receive at 退休.
  • 大多数福利每年由联邦政府通过养老金福利保证公司(PBGC)担保最高限额.

How do defined benefit plans differ from defined contribution plans?

虽然这很容易做到, don’t confuse a defined benefit plan with another type of qualified 退休 plan, the defined contribution plan (e.g., 401(k) plan, profit-sharing plan). 顾名思义,固定福利计划关注的是最终支付的福利. 你的雇主承诺在你退休时支付一定的金额,并负责确保计划中有足够的资金最终支付这一金额, even if plan investments don’t perform well.

相比之下,固定缴款计划主要关注当前对该计划的缴款. 你的计划规定了你每年有权获得的供款金额(由你或你的雇主作出的供款), but your employer is not obligated to pay you a specified amount at 退休. 而不是, 你在退休时获得的数额将取决于你选择的投资以及这些投资的表现.

Some employers offer hybrid plans. 混合计划包括固定收益计划,它具有固定缴款计划的许多特点. One of the most popular forms of a hybrid plan is the cash balance plan.

What are cash balance plans?

现金余额计划是固定收益计划,在很多方面类似于固定缴款计划. Like defined benefit plans, 他们有义务在退休时向你支付一定数额的退休金,并且由联邦政府提供保险. 但它们也提供了固定缴款计划最常见的特征之一:退休基金在个人账户中积累(在这种情况下), 一个假设的账户).

This allows you to easily track how much 退休 benefit you have accrued. And your benefit is portable. If you leave your employer, 一般来说,你可以选择一次性分配你的既定账户余额. 这些资金可以转到个人退休账户(IRA)或你新雇主的退休计划中.

你现在应该做什么

It’s never too early to start planning for 退休. 你的养老金收入, along with Social Security, 个人储蓄, 和投资收入, can help you realize your dream of living well in 退休.

首先要弄清楚当你退休时,你可以从你的固定收益计划中得到多少. Your employer will send you this information every year. 但请阅读细则. Estimates often assume that you’ll retire at 年龄 65 with a single life annuity. 如果你提前退休或领取联合和遗属年金,你每月的福利可能会少得多. 最后, remember that most defined benefit plans don’t offer cost-of-living adjustments, 因此,现在看来慷慨的福利在未来通货膨胀造成损失时可能会贬值很多.

这里有一些你可以做的其他事情来最大限度地利用你的固定福利计划:

  • Read the summary plan description. 它提供了贵公司养老金计划的详细信息,包括重要信息, such as vesting requirements and payment options. 如果有任何不理解的地方,向计划管理员提出问题.
  • 检查你的账户信息,确保你知道你有权得到什么好处. 定期做这个, checking your Social Security number, 出生日期, and the compensation used to calculate your benefits, since these are common sources of error.
  • Notify your plan administrator of any life changes that may affect your benefits (e.g., marri年龄, divorce, death of a spouse).
  • Keep track of the pension information for each company you’ve worked for. 确保你有养老金计划报表的复印件,准确地反映你有权获得的福利金额.
  • 注意变化. 雇主可以改变甚至终止养老金计划,但你会收到足够的通知. The key is, read all notices you receive.
  • Assess the impact of changing jobs on your pension. Consider staying with one employer at least until you’re vested. Keep in mind that the longer you stay with one employer, the more you’re likely to receive at 退休.

最后,当你临近退休,有固定收益计划时,你有很多选择可以权衡.  If you have questions, please do not hesitate to reach out to us.

At 奥斯丁的资产,365app官方版下载是收费的 财务顾问. 365app官方版下载寻求通过真实和持久的关系为财富带来清晰和目的. 对生活.

Please visit our prior two articles in this three-part series on 401 (k)基础知识 and 403(b) Basics for further reading.

下一个

A Note to Our Clients Regarding COVID-19

阅读更多»

Charitable Giving in 2021

阅读更多»

Sign Up for Our Newsletter